The Dnieper-Bug estuary was formed as a result of the transgression of the Black Sea in the lower reaches of the Dnieper and the Southern Bug. The estuary is connected to the Black Sea by a 3.6 km wide strait (between the Ochakov cape and the Kinburn spit). The southern shores are low, sandy; northern, mostly high (up to 20-35 m), composed of clay-sandy rocks, only in some areas there are sand-shell spits. The bottom near the braids is sandy, at a depth is covered with loamy-sand silts.
About 25-30% of the river flow of the Dnieper and the Southern Bug is spent on irrigation and industrial water supply, which leads to an increase in the salinity of the water in the estuary. As a result, the habitat and spawning conditions of certain species of industrial fish have worsened, as well as the expansion of marine species of phyto- and zooplankton and fish (in particular, tyulka).
The Dnieper-Bug estuary has transport and fishery significance, its banks are a recreation area.
To preserve the nature of the estuary, additional discharges are made from the Kakhovka reservoir, shore strengthening and greening, wastewater treatment and the transfer of industrial enterprises to recycled water supply. Part of the Dnieper-Bug estuary is located within the Black Sea Biosphere Reserve.